A Phylogenomc study of Korean Hosta species through target enrichment & genome skimming
Mi-Jeong Yoo1, Byoung-Yoon Lee2, Sangtae Kim3, Suhyuon Park3,4, Dong-Pil Jin2, Chae Eun Lim2*
University, Potsdam, NY 13699, U.S.A. 2 National Institute of Biological
Resources, Incheon, Korea, 3 Sungshin Women's University, Seoul, Korea, 4 InfoBoss Co., Ltd, and InfoBoss Research Center, Seoul, Korea.
The genus Hosta (Agavoideae; Asparagaceae) is one of the most popular landscaping and ornamental plants native to temperate East Asia. In Korea, five to eleven species have been described, but the lack of taxonomically distinct traits makes it hard to reach a consensus regarding Hosta species entity. Here, we aimed to infer Korean Hosta species entity, their phylogenetic relationships, and estimate divergence time. To do so, we captured 251 single-copy nuclear gene sequences and plastid genomes from 51 accessions of seven Korean Hosta species using the Hyb-Seq method. Phylogenetic analyses of the captured sequences retrieved six species groups of Hosta in Korea: 1) H. minor/H. venusta, 2) H. jonesii, 3) H. capitata, 4) H. clausa, 5) H. yingeri, and 6) H. plantaginea. Korean hostas formed a monophyletic group, where H. plantaginea was basal to the remaining species, but H. minor and H. venusta failed to form their own clades. Based on the low sequence divergence and overlapping morphological characteristics between those two species, H. venusta was treated as H. minor var. venusta. Divergence time estimated here showed that Hosta diverged 38.38 million years ago, while Korean Hosta species rapidly diversified during the late Miocene. Last, we explored the possibility of these genomic data for inferring the origin of cultivated species. This study provides the most comprehensive genomic resources which can be used in the development of potential molecular markers for population and conservation studies of Hosta.